Azoospermia (Zero Sperm Count): Causes & Treatment

Azoospermia (Zero Sperm Count): Causes & Treatment
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The absence of any sperm in the ejaculation is known as azoospermia. Obstructions may cause sperm to release or ejaculate. Therefore, this inefficiency may lead to low-quality sperm.

Typically, testicles produce sperm. Semen is formed by mixing sperm with fluids that travel through different parts of your reproductive system. Also, ejaculation occurs when semen comes out of the tip of your penis. Azoospermia is the lack of sperm in semen. Azoospermia can often be called having “no sperm count”.

A few people are born without sperm, while others become sterile during childhood or adulthood. For example, medication and surgery may be used in some cases. The fact that you have cystic fibrosis does not prevent you from having children of biological origin.

There are three types of azoospermia.

  • Post-testicular azoospermia implies that you have some obstruction within or that there are no links present in your reproductive channel. You are making sperm, but something is stopping them from leaving. This can also be referred to as obstructive azoospermia. This is the most widespread form, affecting 40% of men with azoospermia disorder.
  • Testicular azoospermia: This is a kind of azoospermia whereby you make low-quality or zero sperms because of anomalies or damage in the construction or function of your testis. This can also be referred to as non-obstructive azoospermia.
  • Pretesticular azoospermia: There are no significant abnormalities in your testicles or the reproductive tract; they are just not motivated sufficiently by hormones to produce sperm. It may result from chemical treatment or endocrine disturbance. This can also be classified as another form of nonobstructive azoospermia.

Suggest to read :- How Many Days After Egg Retrieval Is Embryo Transferred?

Is azoospermia common?

Yes. Azoospermia affects approximately ten percent of infertile males, while one percent of all men suffer from this condition. Here is an example: If there were 50,000 male spectators at one particular match, that’s thousands of men who are infertile, and more specifically, five hundred of them have no sperm.

What causes azoospermia?

Various possible causes range from different genetic conditions like Klinefelter’s syndrome to drug therapies such as chemotherapy or radiation, different narcotics, and even anatomical malformations.

Another apparent reason is vasectomy, which denies the conjunction of the sperm with other fluids in the seminal fluid.

Moreover, in most cases, azoospermia results from unknown causes, for example, genetic problems, inadequate prenatal or postnatal test development, or exposure to toxins present in the environment. You could have issues that prevent your testicles from producing sperm or sperm from exiting your body.

Male infertility can also happen because of:

  • a reproductive tract infection like epididymitis and urethritis.
  • Illness in childhood that results in swelling of one or both testicles, like viral orchitis.
  • A groin injury
  • genetically related to afflictions, e.g., Klinefelter’s syndrome.
  • Obstruction of the ducts in which sperm is transmitted into your penis from the testis. This is called obstructive azoospermia.
  • A vasectomy

What are the signs that you have azoospermia?

Your doctor may check if something is stopping you from getting pregnant, as this could be why you are not able to impregnate your partner yet.

At first, you are going to do some semen sampling to check sperm count, which is done by a professional doctor with the help of a sophisticated microscope. If there is no sperm seen in the semen sample two times, you have azoospermia.

Your doctor may also have you perform a scrotal or trans-rectal ultrasound if you do not have higher levels of hormones. The diagnosis can be confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In other cases, the blockage can be discovered only after surgery.

If you do not have a blockage, genetic tests might tell you whether you have mutated genes.

Treatments and Your Fertility

Some of the modes of treatment exist for azoospermia males who wish to become fathers and have children can opt for IVF or sperm freezing in Delhi. 

Sperm retrieval may assist non-obstructive azoospermia or men requiring no surgical obstruction. To solve this, they can take a small needle and draw some sperm out of one testis. You may then utilize this specimen for IVF-ICSI in a single cycle or store the sample until needed.

In cases of low sperm count or destroying sperm level, you can even go for sperm freezing in Delhi to increase your probability of conceiving.


Learning that whatever may be blocking the expansion of your family is not easy although lots of emotions will run through you upon knowing that you do not have sperm, it’s essential to consult a healthcare professional to get to the root of the issue.

Your provider can also extract sperm from your testes to use in such methods as IVF or you can even go for sperm freezing in Delhi for later. Make sure you talk about everything that concerns you as well as the potential treatments with your provider.