Abstract Methods vs Concrete Methods

Abstract Methods vs Concrete Methods
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Abstract Methods vs Concrete Methods: A Simplified Guide for the General Public

Introduction

Have you ever wondered how software programs work behind the scenes? How do developers create functions that perform specific tasks? In the world of programming, two terms often come up: abstract methods and concrete methods. In this article, we’ll explore these concepts in simple terms, without getting lost in technical jargon. We’ll also see how they relate to BDD framework & cucumber software testing.

Table of Contents

Sr# Headings
1 Introduction
2 What are Abstract Methods?
3 Characteristics of Abstract Methods
4 Examples of Abstract Methods
5 What are Concrete Methods?
6 Characteristics of Concrete Methods
7 Examples of Concrete Methods
8 Differences Between Abstract and Concrete Methods
9 Benefits of Abstract Methods
10 Benefits of Concrete Methods
11 Implementing Abstract and Concrete Methods in BDD Framework
12 Conclusion
13 FAQs

What are Abstract Methods?

Abstract methods are like placeholders in a blueprint. They define a method’s signature (name, parameters, and return type) without providing an implementation. It’s like saying, “I need a method called calculate that takes two numbers and returns their sum, but I’ll let the subclasses decide how to actually perform the calculation.”

Characteristics of Abstract Methods

  • No Implementation: Abstract methods have no implementation in the abstract class.
  • Must be Overridden: Any class that extends the abstract class must provide an implementation for the abstract method.
  • Can’t be Private: Abstract methods cannot be private because they need to be accessible to subclasses for implementation.

Examples of Abstract Methods

Let’s consider an example. Suppose we have an abstract class Shape with an abstract method calculateArea. Any class that extends Shape must implement calculateArea according to its specific shape, such as Circle, Rectangle, or Triangle.

What are Concrete Methods?

Concrete methods, on the other hand, provide a complete implementation. They are like the actual functions that perform the tasks. Using the earlier example, a concrete method for calculateArea would actually perform the area calculation for a specific shape.

Characteristics of Concrete Methods

  • Has Implementation: Concrete methods have a complete implementation in the class.
  • Can’t be Overridden: Unlike abstract methods, concrete methods are already implemented and cannot be overridden in subclasses.
  • Can be Private: Concrete methods can be private because they are not meant to be overridden.

Examples of Concrete Methods

Continuing with our Shape example, a concrete method in the Circle class could be calculateArea where the actual area calculation formula for a circle is implemented.

Differences Between Abstract and Concrete Methods

The main difference between abstract and concrete methods is in their purpose and implementation. Abstract methods provide a blueprint for subclasses to follow, while concrete methods provide the actual functionality.

  • Purpose: Abstract methods define a method’s signature without providing an implementation, while concrete methods provide a complete implementation.
  • Implementation: Abstract methods have no implementation in the abstract class, while concrete methods have a complete implementation in the class.
  • Usage: Abstract methods are used to enforce a contract for subclasses to implement, while concrete methods provide the actual functionality of the class.

Benefits of Abstract Methods

  • Flexibility: Abstract methods allow for flexibility in implementation, as subclasses can provide their own implementations.
  • Enforce Contracts: Abstract methods enforce a contract on subclasses, ensuring that certain methods are implemented.

Benefits of Concrete Methods

  • Reusability: Concrete methods can be reused in subclasses without modification.
  • Code Clarity: Concrete methods provide a clear implementation of functionality, making the code easier to understand cucumber framework .

Implementing Abstract and Concrete Methods in BDD Framework

In bdd cucumber framework, abstract and concrete methods can be used to define BDD framework in selenium  specifications and their implementations. For example, in cucumber framework testing  (a popular BDD tool), abstract methods can define step definitions, while concrete methods can implement the actual behavior of the steps.

Conclusion

Understanding abstract methods vs concrete methods is key to grasping the fundamentals of programming. Abstract methods provide a blueprint for classes to follow, while concrete methods provide the actual implementation. In the world of cucumber behaviour driven development  & cucumber framework selenium , these concepts play a crucial role in defining behavior specifications and their implementations.

FAQs

Q: How are abstract methods different from concrete methods?
A: Abstract methods define a method’s signature without providing an implementation, while concrete methods provide a complete implementation.

Q: Can abstract methods have implementations?
A: No, abstract methods have no implementation in the abstract class.

Q: Can concrete methods be overridden?
A: No, concrete methods are already implemented and cannot be overridden in subclasses.

Q: What is the main purpose of abstract methods?
A: Abstract methods enforce a contract on subclasses, ensuring that certain methods are implemented.

Q: How do abstract and concrete methods relate to BDD framework & cucumber software testing?
A: In BDD framework, abstract methods can define behavior specifications, while concrete methods can implement the actual behavior of the steps.

 

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